Cloisonné and painted enamels Maximize

Cloisonné and painted enamels

Chinese cloisonné enamels were born in China at the beginning of the 15th century. Their expertise and dating is complex.

The technique consists of placing partitions on a bronze core to form alveoli where the enamels will be applied. After the firing of enamels, the bronze parts are gilded with gold and mercury.
The first imperial Chinese cloisonné enamels appeared under the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644) to provide ritual objects for the Tibetan cult. At this period, the colors of the enamels, turquoise blue and lapis lazuli blue, black, white, green, red, yellow, are bright. In the 16th century, the palette of colors grew: Chinese artists developed pink, purple, light brown and different shades of green enamels. The style and representations of plants and animals reflect the important influence of Daoism.
The objects made in cloisonné enamels are various and made for different purposes: yenyen, hu, gu, zun shape vases, double-gourd vases, basins, censers, aquariums, furniture (tables, screens and table screens).
During the Qing dynasty (1644 - 1911), new techniques allowed the realization of larger objects. Cloisonné enamels are used everywhere: on furniture, on toys, to make impressive ornaments ... In the 19th century, Chinese cloisonné enamels will fascinate Europe. They will be collected, mounted in ormolu and were inspiration for artists such as Barbedienne.

Enamels painted on copper result from the assimilation of a foreign technique, coming directly from Limoges, France. She was introduced to the court by a French Jesuit. The first French missionaries brought in to have them copied. These polychrome enamels painted on copper are used to make vessels, cake boxes, fruit boxes, tea caddies, ewers and jugs, vases. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Canton was the largest production centre. The commerce of enamels of Canton will assert itself with the creation of the East Indian Companies. The grace of the design and the charm of the enamels executed in the workshops of the imperial palace or the workshops of Guangdong during the reign of the emperors, Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, and executed for their use, will find nowhere equal. Snuff bottles, boxes … were the subject of it.